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冲剂、滴剂、胶囊、糖果饼干、乳制品、婴儿辅食……各种剂型的益生菌保健品、食品、功能饮品等充斥线上线下不同渠道,让人眼花缭乱,一股围绕益生菌保健品、健康食品的消费时尚扑面而来。

益生菌并非新鲜事物,在食品、保健品领域的应用也有很长时间了,中国益生菌领域的专家通过十余年的研究,正在与国际接轨,一些研究成果也在食品工业领域实现了转化,益生菌产业正在快速成长,同时也伴随着良莠不齐的行业问题,尤其在母婴食品、保健品领域,益生菌甚至一度被包装成有病治病、无病强身的“万能灵药”。

但事实上,益生菌的种类、菌株多且复杂,学界对益生菌的研究和判断十分谨慎,鼠李糖杆菌等知名益生菌菌株在特定疾病的临床试验结果与商家标榜的效果相差甚远,对于益生菌实际功效和安全性的研究也存在诸多争议和不确定。

围绕益生菌到底能不能吃、什么人能吃益生菌、消费者如何甄别众多的益生菌噱头产品、益生菌产业如何实现健康发展等问题,记者做了多方调研和采访。

野蛮生长与消费困惑

“宝宝出生7天时,黄疸指数高达20,医生建议照蓝光后降下来一些,半个多月再去复查的时候,仍然偏高,医生开了药和益生菌冲剂,我担心孩子太小了肠胃受不了刺激,加上之前听崔玉涛医生讲座时记得他说过尽量不要人为干预孩子肠道菌群的自然发育,就没有给他吃,经过勤喂、晒太阳,孩子的黄疸最终消退了。”家在武汉的妈妈鑫怡(化名)告诉第一财经记者,孩子现在两岁多了,几乎每次遇到感冒发烧之类的问题,医生都会开益生菌,“身边的很多妈妈长期给孩子吃益生菌,说这样能增强抵抗力,母婴店里的米粉、饼干、营养面、糖果之类的也有很多标注含有益生菌,有益肠道健康之类的功能,我很困惑,不知道到底该不该给孩子吃、怎么吃,问过几个医生,答复不尽相同,而且也没给什么解释。”鑫怡说,身边有很多妈妈都有跟她一样的困惑,有的抵不住家人朋友的劝说,给孩子吃了益生菌,有的还在像她一样地挣扎,不知道怎么选择才是正确的。

不久前,记者参观了第19届中国孕婴童展,在食品、保健品展区,发现参展商品里从婴幼儿奶粉、辅食、糖果饼干、饮料到各种营养补充剂,益生菌概念普遍存在,甚至有号称能预防、减少哺乳期妇女乳腺炎发病率的益生菌产品。不同的产品配料表中,对添加益生菌的说明也有差别,奶粉中普遍标注为“益生元”;滴剂、粉末状冲剂则大都标注了添加的菌株名称及菌数,婴儿辅食、糖果零食及饮品中的益生菌标注则参差不齐。

记者随机采访了多名看展的家长和参展商,家长们普遍反映了益生菌应用十分广泛的现象,对益生菌服用效果的评价不一,但一致的是,没有一位家长认为益生菌有害健康。而参展商对添加了益生菌的婴幼儿食品、保健品宣传、推介力度也明显更大,记者随机采访的数位参展商品牌,均表示日常摄入益生菌有助于肠道健康和增强抵抗力,其宣传重点集中在双歧杆菌、罗伊氏乳杆菌、保加利亚乳杆菌、鼠李糖杆菌等知名益生菌及活性添加量上。

随后,记者走访了联华、家乐福等商超以及全家、良友等连锁便利店,发现添加益生菌的产品集中在酸奶等乳制品、面包点心等食品品类,其配料表中对益生菌的标注也不同,有的只标注“益生菌”三个字,乳制品大都标注了益生菌的菌种,但少有标注菌数。一名全家便利店店员表示,这一年多酸奶制品的品牌、品类、口味明显增加了,卖得挺不错,乳酸菌夹心面包则是今年引进的,几乎每天都可以卖光。

消费端的表现,往往直接投射在产业端。

睿欧数据显示,2017年全球益生菌市场规模已达360亿美元,全球益生菌产品中,保健食品与药品占比8.6%,预计2020年全球益生菌膳食补充剂的市场价值将达到88亿美元。中国益生菌2017年市场规模已达460亿元人民币,预计到2022年将接近千亿元,年平均增速约14%,现处于快速增长期。

从细分行业看,益生菌食品占比最高,且以发酵乳制品为主,消费规模占比约78%。2017年,中国酸奶行业销售额达到1192亿元,同增18%,首次超过牛奶。且近年来中国酸奶行业毛利率在35%~40%左右,高端酸奶品类毛利率更高,高端份额的扩张进一步推升了利润率。乳酸菌饮料的平均毛利率在30%左右,乳酸菌饮料龙头养乐多的毛利率更是超过50%,2017~2018财年,养乐多实现营收4015.69亿日元,截至2019年5月17日市值约1.15万亿日元,在细分市场影响力十分强劲。

利润较高的则是保健品,合生元的益生菌业务毛利率在70%以上,澳大利亚益生菌膳食补充剂品牌Life Space的毛利率也在50%以上。此外,交大昂立、修正药业、汤臣倍健等国内保健品、药品企业,娃哈哈、君乐宝等食品企业也纷纷推出针对不同人群的益生菌产品;澳大利亚的Life Space、韩国的“妈咪爱”和美国的“康萃乐”等国外益生菌品牌也在中国母婴市场得到了迅猛增长。

原料链条方面,益生菌原料巨头丹麦公司科汉森截至2019年5月17日的市值达943亿丹麦克朗,毛利率亦在50%以上,净利率在18%~20%左右。另一原料巨头杜邦公司则于2011年以334亿丹麦克朗获得92.2%的丹尼斯克控股权。这两家公司,杜邦(占比约50%)和丹麦科汉森(占比约35%)垄断了国内大部分益生菌原料市场。

申万宏源证券认为,随着益生菌行业迅速发展,在塑造细分龙头上仍有较大市值空间,未来还可能出现更多大体量的公司。

过度宣传包装

珠海慧作电子商务有限公司的工作人员向记者展示了一款号称可以预防、减少哺乳期妇女乳腺炎发病率的“玛西塔”固体益生菌冲剂,表示其中含有分离自健康母乳的益生菌CECT5716,每剂量添加了70亿高活性菌,产地为新西兰,该工作人员称其在国外获得大量哺乳期妈妈的关注,但记者注意到该品牌的另一款儿童益生菌产地标注为美国。

对此,记者咨询了上海龙华医院乳腺科医生,得到的回复是,还没有看到这类能预防乳腺炎的益生菌专业论文或报告,不知其是否真有实效,但防治乳腺炎目前来看与益生菌的常规保健功能并没有多大关系。

在全球益生菌行业蓬勃发展的大背景下,中国食品科学技术学会益生菌分会的数据显示,2016 年亚太地区益生菌消费规模占全球规模的份额进一步扩大,高达 47%,其次是欧洲 22%(西欧15%、东欧 7%)、北美 16.5%和中东 6.5%。中国的益生菌产业起步晚,开发从20世纪90年代开始,落后欧洲、日本等地区约 15~30 年,进入 21 世纪后,国内益生菌市场呈现奋起直追的态势。

Infusion, drop, capsule, candy cookies, dairy products, baby food... Various dosage forms of probiotics health care products, food, functional drinks and so on fill different online and offline channels, so that people are dazzled, a wave of consumption fashion around probiotics health care products and health food.

Probiotics is not new, applied in the field of food, health care products also have for a long time, Chinese experts in the field of probiotics, through the study of more than ten years are in line with international standards, some research achievements in the field of food industry also realized the transformation, the probiotic industry is growing rapidly, but also with the good and bad are intermingled of industry, especially in the field of maternal and infant food, health care products, probiotics was packaged into sick sick, even without the "panacea" of physical disease.

But in fact, the species, strains of probiotics and more complex, academic research and judgment of probiotics is very cautious, rhamnose coli well-known probiotic strains in certain diseases such as the effect of clinical trials and the businessman as far, the actual efficacy and safety of probiotics research also has many disputes and uncertain.

Around the question of whether probiotics can be eaten, who can eat probiotics, how consumers identify numerous probiotics gimmick products, and how the probiotics industry can achieve healthy development, the reporter has done a variety of research and interviews.

Savage growth and consumption puzzle

7 days "the baby is born, jaundice index up to 20, the doctor suggested according to blue light down a bit, when more than half a month to review again, still on the high side, the doctor prescribed medicine granule and probiotics, I fear that the child is too small intestines and stomach can't stand stimulation, plus Cui Yutao doctor lecture before remember he said try not to human intervention children when the natural development of intestinal flora, and not to give him to eat, often feed, the sunshine, the child's jaundice subsided in the end." Home mother in wuhan xin yi (a pseudonym) told the first financial journalist, children are more than two years old now, almost every problem encountered a cold have a fever, the doctor will open probiotics, "many mothers for their children for a long time to eat around probiotics, says this can enhance resistance, maternal and child stores such as rice noodles, biscuits, nutrition, candy, also has a lot of labeling containing probiotics, beneficial intestinal health functions, such as I am very confused, don't know what should give the child to eat, how to eat, asked a few doctors, reply is not the same, but also did not give any explanation." Xin yi said that many mothers around her have the same confusion, some can not resist the family and friends to persuade their children to eat probiotics, some are still struggling like her, do not know how to choose the right.

Recently, the reporter visited the 19th China: children's show, in food, health care products exhibition, found in the exhibition goods from infant milk powder, assist food, candy, biscuit, drinks to various nutritional supplements, probiotics concept is widespread, and there were even claims to prevent and reduce the incidence of mastitis lactating women probiotic products. Different ingredients of the products have different instructions on adding probiotics. The milk powder is generally labeled as "probiotics". Drops and powder granules were mostly labeled with the name and number of added strains, while probiotics in infant supplements, candy snacks and drinks were uneven.

A random interview with a number of parents and exhibitors showed that probiotics were widely used, and their comments on the effects of probiotics were varied, but the consensus was that none of the parents thought probiotics were harmful to health. And exhibitors to add probiotics baby foods, health care products also significantly greater publicity and promotion efforts, press random interviews several exhibitors brand, said the daily intake of probiotics helps intestinal health and immune system, its publicity focused on Roy's lactobacillus, bifidobacterium and lactobacillus Bulgaria, rhamnose bacillus and other well-known probiotics and active content.

Subsequently, the reporter visited the lianhua, carrefour and other business and the family, friend and other convenience store chain, found that adding probiotic products focused on yogurt and other dairy products, bread, cookies and other food category, the ingredients in the annotations of probiotics is different also, some only marked "probiotic" three words, dairy products were marked the probiotic strains, but few tagging bacterium number. A family store clerk said that the brand, category and taste of yogurt products have increased significantly in the past year, and the sales are quite good. The lactobacillus sandwich bread was introduced this year and sold out almost every day.

The performance of the consumer side is often directly projected on the industrial side.

According to data from euromonitor, the global probiotic market reached 36 billion us dollars in 2017, and health food and drugs accounted for 8.6% of the global probiotic products. It is estimated that the global market value of probiotic dietary supplements will reach 8.8 billion us dollars in 2020. The market size of probiotics in China has reached 46 billion yuan in 2017, and is expected to reach nearly 100 billion yuan by 2022, with an average annual growth rate of about 14%. It is now in a period of rapid growth.

In terms of specific industries, probiotics accounted for the highest proportion, mainly fermented dairy products, and the consumption scale accounted for about 78%. In 2017, the sales volume of China's yogurt industry reached 119.2 billion yuan, an 18% increase, surpassing milk for the first time. Moreover, in recent years, the gross profit rate of Chinese yogurt industry is around 35% ~ 40%. The gross profit rate of high-end yogurt category is higher, and the expansion of high-end share further pushes up the profit rate. The average gross profit rate of lactic acid bacteria beverage is about 30%, and the gross profit rate of lactic acid bacteria beverage leader yangledo is more than 50%. In the fiscal year of 2017 ~ 2018, yangledo has realized the revenue of 401.569 billion yen. As of May 17, 2019, its market value is about 1.15 trillion yen, which has a very strong influence in the market segment.

Health products are the most profitable. The gross profit margin of biostime's probiotics business is above 70%, and the gross profit margin of Australian probiotic dietary supplement brand Life Space is also above 50%. In addition, domestic health products and pharmaceutical companies such as jiao tong university onlyli, xiedou pharmaceutical and tomson beijian, as well as food companies such as wahaha and junlebao, have also launched probiotics products targeted at different groups. Foreign probiotic brands such as Life Space in Australia, "mommy love" in South Korea and "consuela" in the United States have also seen rapid growth in China's maternal and infant market.

In terms of raw material chain, as of May 17, 2019, the market value of probiotics raw material giant khansen reaches DKR 94.3 billion, with gross profit rate above 50% and net interest rate around 18% ~ 20%. Dupont, another materials giant, took a 92.2% controlling stake in danisco in 2011 for dk33.4 billion. The two companies, dupont (about 50%) and Denmark's khansen (about 35%), monopolize most of the domestic market for probiotic ingredients.

Shenwan hongyuan securities believes that with the rapid development of the probiotics industry, there is still a large market value space in shaping the segmentation leader, and there may be more large companies in the future.

Overadvertised packaging

Zhuhai hui for electronic commerce co., LTD staff showed a reporter a so-called can prevent and reduce the incidence of mastitis lactating women "Marcy tower" granule solid probiotics, said containing probiotic CECT5716 isolated from healthy breast milk, each dose added 7 billion highly active bacteria, producing area for New Zealand, the staff said it get a lot of lactation mother abroad attention, but the reporter noticed that the brand of another child probiotics origin in the United States.

For this, the reporter consulted the mammary doctor of Shanghai longhua hospital, and the reply was that there was no professional paper or report on probiotics that could prevent mastitis. I don't know whether it has real effect, but the prevention and treatment of mastitis is not related to the routine health function of probiotics.

Against the background of the booming global probiotics industry, data from the probiotics branch of the Chinese society of food science and technology showed that the consumption scale of probiotics in the asia-pacific region further increased its share of the global scale in 2016, reaching 47%, followed by 22% in Europe (15% in Western Europe and 7% in eastern Europe), 16.5% in North America and 6.5% in the Middle East. China's probiotics industry started late, and its development began in the 1990s, about 15 to 30 years behind that of Europe, Japan and other regions. After entering the 21st century, the domestic probiotics market showed a trend of catching up.


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